Genetic makeup là gì

A gen is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes are made up of DNA. Some genes act as instructions lớn make molecules called proteins. However, many genes vì chưng not code for proteins. In humans, genes vary in kích cỡ from a few hundred DNA bases khổng lồ more than 2 million bases. An international retìm kiếm effort called the Human Genome Project, which worked lớn determine the sequence of the human genome và identify the genes that it contains, estimated that humans have sầu between đôi mươi,000 và 25,000 genes.

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Every person has two copies of each ren, one inherited from each parent. Most genes are the same in all people, but a small number of genes (less than 1 percent of the total) are slightly different between people. Alleles are forms of the same ren with small differences in their sequence of DNA bases. These small differences contribute khổng lồ each person’s unique physical features.

Scientists keep traông chồng of genes by giving them chất lượng names. Because ren names can be long, genes are also assigned symbols, which are short combinations of letters (& sometimes numbers) that represent an abbreviated version of the gen name. For example, a gen on chromosome 7 that has been associated with cystic fibrosis is called the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; its symbol is CFTR.

Genes are made up of DNA. Each chromosome contains many genes.


Credit: U.S. National Library of Medicine

For more information about genes: Genetics provides consumer-friendly ren summaries that include an explanation of each gene"s normal function và how mutations in the ren cause particular genetic conditions.

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More information about how genetic conditions và genes are named is also available from Genetics.

The Centre for Genetics Education offers a fact sheet that introduces genes và chromosomes.

The Tech Museum of Innovation at Stanford University describes genes and how they were discovered.

The Virtual Genetics Education Centre, created by the University of Leicester, offers additional information on DNA, genes, and chromosomes.

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Genetics Home Reference has merged with Genetics Home Reference content now can be found in the "Genetics" section of Learn more

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users with questions about a personal health condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional.

U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesdomain authority, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health và Human Services National Institutes of Health

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